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We decided to collect together into one page all the different references we had used all over the website, in case anyone needed them.
This is just some of the material we used to get knowledgeable about vaginismus and to write the academic papers you can find in the website and to prepare much of the material for the website. A lot of material also comes from having shared experience with hundreds of other girls going through vaginismus and our own personal experience of it too, with doctors, partners etc.
You can find some of these scientific artiles on-line. Some of the books can be found in your library or at Amazon.com. Journal articles may be harder to retreive because you may need access to a University database but many of those that were used here were summed up.

References on Vaginismus
and Related Topics


Recent Additions:
* Angus JM. Thomson, Sherin K. Jarvis, Meegan Lenart, Jason A. Abbott, Thierry G. Vancaillie (2005)
The use of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX®) as treatment for intractable chronic pelvic pain associated with spasm of the levator ani muscles BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 112 (2), 247249.
Retreived from: http://www.greenjournal.org/cgi/reprint/108/4/915

* W Badran1, N Moamen1, I Fahmy1, A El-Karaksy1, T M Abdel-Nasser1 and H Ghanem
(2006) Etiological factors of unconsummated marriage
Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
International Journal of Impotence Research (2006) 18, 458463
("Psychogenic factors were the cause in 74.4% of the investigated patients. Performance anxiety was the cause in 52.9%, and in 21.5% other psychological distresses were responsible. Organic causes represent 7.3%, vaginismus 8.4%, premature ejaculation 3.1% and cases with undetermined etiology were 6.8%. In conclusion, performance anxiety was revealed to be the main contributor. However, other psychogenic, organic and social factors represent sizable etiological factors") Retreived from: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v18/n5/abs/3901452a.html

* 2007 Engman Maria
Partial vaginismus - definition, symptoms and treatment
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden
You can read it in PDF version here: http://www.ep.liu.se/abstract.xsql?dbid=10036

* The Merck Manuals - Online medical library -
Sexual Dysfunctions in Women
http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec18/ch251/ch251a.html


Journal Articles on Vaginismus and related medical topics




Amies, Anne-Marie E. et al. : The effect of vaginal speculum lubrication on the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cytology diagnosis. Obstet Gynecol. Volume: 100, Issue: 5Pt1, Date: 2002 11 08, Pages: 889-92

Astbury J., Carlson K. - CASA HOUSE - (2002) Barriers to Cervical Screening Experienced by Victim/survivors of Sexual Assault - Pilot Study -
The whole study can be found on the CASA website at Casa House project on Pap Test Retraumatization
Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, University of Melbourne Australia

Barnes J. Et al. Biofeedback as an adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of vaginismus. Biofeedback and self-regulation 1984 9 (3) 281-289 (abstract)

Basson R, Leiblum S, Brotto L et al. (2003) Definitions of women's sexual dysfunction reconsidered: advocating expansion and revision. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 24(4):221-9) (Click on the title to see the on-line PDF version)

Basson R., Berman J, Goldstein I et al. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: definitions and classifications. Journal of Urology 163(3) 2000 pp. 888-93.

Bergeron S. et al. (2002)Physical Therapy for Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome: A Retrospective Study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, Volume 28, Issue 3 May 2002 , pages 183 - 192

Bramley H.M. et al. (1983) Non-consummation of marriage treated by members of the Institute of Psychosexual medicine: a prospective study British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (90) 908-913

Broadmore J, Carr-Gregg M, Hutton (1986) Vaginal examinations: women's experiences and preferences. JD New ZealandMedical Journal. 99:8-10.

Butcher J. (1999) ABC of sexual health: Female sexual problems II: sexual pain and sexual fears. British Medical Journal 318 (7176): 110-112

Canavan Timothy P., MD; Heckman Celeste D., MD. (2000) Dyspareunia in women: Breaking the silence is the first step toward treatment. POSTGRADUATE MEDICINE. VOL 108 / NO 2.

Chernesky, Max A PhD (2005) Women Find It Easy and Prefer to Collect Their Own Vaginal Swabs to Diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 32(12):729-733.

Coldicott Y. et al. (2003) The ethics of intimate examinations teaching tomorrows doctors. British Medical Journal 326: 97-99

Crowley, Tessa et al. (on behalf of the BASHH Special Interest Group for Sexual Dysfunction) Recommendations for the management of vaginismus. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 17(1):14-18, January 2006. ( HERE )

Dreth et al. (1996) University Hospital Groningen "Connections between primary vaginismus and procreation: some observations from clinical practice". in J. Psychosom. Obstet Gynaecol. 17 (4): 195-201

Eaker S. et al. (2001) Reasons women do not attend screening for cervical cancer: a population-based study in Sweden Preventive Medicine 32 (6): 482-491

Fuchs K. Therapy of vaginismus by hypnotic desensitization. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 137 (1) 1980 1-7 (abstract)

Ghazizadeh Shirin, MD and Masoomeh Nikzad, MD. (2004) Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus .
Available online at http://www.greenjournal.org/cgi/content/full/104/5/922

Glasgow RE. et al. (2000) Barriers to mammography and Pap smear screening among women who recently had neither, one or both types of screening. Annal of Behavioural Medicine 22(3): 223-228

Griffith W. et al. : Vaginal speculum lubrication and its effects on cervical cytology and microbiology. Contraception. Volume: 72, Issue: 1, Date: 2005 06 20, Pages: 60-4

Holroyd E et al. (2001) Chinese women's experiences and images of the Pap smear examination. Cancer Nursing 24 (1), 68-75

Hathaway, J. et al.: Is liquid-based pap testing affected by water-based lubricant? Obstet Gynecol. Volume: 107, Issue: 1, Date: 2006 01 05, Pages: 66-70

Harer, W Benson et al. : Lubrication of the vaginal introitus and speculum does not affect Papanicolaou smears. Obstet Gynecol. Volume: 100, Issue: 5Pt1, Date: 2002 11 08, Pages: 887-8

Holt M, Irwin V. (2007) Women's Views of their Sexual Difficulties: Agreement and Disagreement with Clinical Diagnoses. Source: Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 36, Number 2, April 2007 , pp. 281-288(8)

Hoyo C et al. (2005) Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women. Preventive medicine 41 (2): 439-445

Jeng Cherng-Jye et al. (2006) Management and Outcome of Primary Vaginismus. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Volume 32, Number 5 / October-December 379 - 387

Kabakci E., Batur S. Who benefits from cognitive behavioural therapy for vaginismus? Journal of sex and marital therapy 2003 29 (4) 277-288 (abstract)

Kessler J. (1988) When the diagnosis is vaginismus: fighting misconceptions. Women and Therapy 7 (2/3) p 175

Kleinplatz P. (2005) Adding insult to injury: the classification of Dyspareunia as a sexual dysfunction in the DSM. Archives of sexual behaviour 34 (1) p. 36 (abstract)

Matin M et al. (2004) Attitudes toward cervical cancer screening among Muslim women: A pilot study. Women and Health 39 (3), 63-77

Nusbaum M. (2000) The high prevalence of sexual concerns among women seeking routine gynaecological care. Journal of Family Practice. Retrieved 26/09/2005 HERE

Oktay M. and Tombul K. (2003) 200 cases of Vaginismus: their and their husbands psychological evaluation. Yeni Symposium 41 (30) 115-119 (abstract article in Turkish)

Ohkawa R. (2001) Vaginismus is better not included in sexual pain disorders. Journal of sex and marital therapy 27: 191-192

Reissing E. et al. (1999) Does vaginismus exist? A critical review of the literature The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187 (5): 261-271

Reissing et al. (2003) Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 29 (1) 47-59

Reissing E. et al. (2004) Vaginal spasm, pain and behaviour: an Empirical Investigation of the Diagnosis of Vaginismus Archives of sexual behaviour 33(1): 5-17

Rosenbaum Talli Yehuda BSPT (2007) Pelvic Floor Involvement in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction and the Role of Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation in Treatment: A Literature Review. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 4 (1), 413.

Scholl GM (1988) Prognostic variables in treating vaginismus Obstetrics and Gynecology 72 231-235 (abstract)

Seehusen Dean A, Johnson Dawn R et al. (2006). Improving women's experience during speculum examinations at routine gynaecological visits: randomised clinical trial. British Medical Journal 333: 171

Shirin Ghazizadeh, MD and Masoomeh Nikzad, MD (2004) - Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus - Obstetrics & Gynecology 2004;104:922-925

Schouten WR, et al. (1998) Anismus: fact or fiction? in Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Sep;40(9):1033-41.

Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Inc. (2006) Erectile Dysfunction in Partners of Women With Vaginismus: Tadalafil as Adjuvant Therapy - Journal of Sex Research (available on-line)

Shaw J. Treatment of primary vaginismus: a new perspective. Journal of sex and marital therapy 1994 20 (1) 46-55 (abstract)

Silverstein JL. (1989) Origins of psychogenic vaginismus. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 52 (4):197-204 (abstract)

Smith M, French L, Barry H. (2003) Periodic abstinence from Pap (PAP) Smear Study: Womens perceptions of pap smear screening Annals of Family Medicine 1(4) accessed 22/10/2005 from www.annfammed.org

Tiefer L. (1999) The medicalization of female sexuality: The 10/99 conference (in article The selling of female sexual dysfunction). Retrieved September 17, 2005 from Tiefer Leonore's Archive

Van der Velde J. And Everaerd W. (1999) Voluntary control over pelvic floor muscles in women with and without vaginistic reaction. International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 10: 230-236

Van der Velde J. And Everaerd W. (2001) The relationship between involuntary pelvic floor muscle activity, muscle awareness and experienced threat in women with and without vaginismus Behaviour Research and Therapy 39: 395-408

Van der Velde J. et al. (2001) Vaginismus, a component of a general defense mechanism: An investigation of pelvic floor muscle activity during exposure to emotion-inducing film excerpts in women with or without vaginismus. Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 12: 328-331

Van Lankveld, Jacques et al. (2006) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women With Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 74(1):168-178.

Ward E, Ogden J. (1994) Experiencing vaginismus: sufferers beliefs about causes and effects Sexual and marital Therapy 9 (1) 1994: 33-45

World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence
For the whole text, please go HERE

Wright D et al. (2005) Speculum 'self-insertion': a pilot study. Journal of clinical nursing 14 (9): 1098-1111

Yitzchak M et al. (2002) The female sexual pain disorders: genital pain or sexual dysfunction? Archives of sexual behaviour 31 (5): 425-429

Zargooshi D. (2000) unconsummated marriage in Iran: classification of aetiology: treatment with intracorporeal injection. BMJ International 86 (1): 75-79



ON the medicalization of female sexual dysfunctions, the real role of androgens, pharmaceutical companies etc.



Apperloo M. et al. In the mood for sex: the value of androgens. Journal of sex and marital therapy 29 (2) 2003 pp 87-102

Allina A. FDA Committee says No to testosterone patch The Womens Health Activist 30 (3) May/June 2005 p. 10

M2 Communications Ltd Research and Markets: strategic perspectives. Female Sexual Dysfunction Are physicians and patients ready for a female Viagra? M2 Presswire Coventry February 23, 2003 p.1

Berman J. et al. Safety and efficacy of sildenafil citrate for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder: a double-blind, placebo controlled study. The Journal of Urology 70 Dec 2003, pp. 2333-2338 (for the Sildenafil Study Group)

Groneman C. Historical construction of female sexuality Signs Winter 1994 pp. 337-367

Bachmann G, Goldstein I, Bancroft J et al. Female androgen insufficiency: the Princeton consensus statement on definition, classification, and assessment. Fertility and Sterility 2002 77(4) pp. 660-665.

Bancroft J. The medicalization of Female Sexual Dysfunction: the need for caution. Archives of Sexual Behaviour 31 (5) 2002 pp. 451-455

Beersheva Mental Health Centre Study design August 2005 - recruiting patients to test Testosterone in Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and intervention with drug Androgel Retrieved September 22 2005 here

Fishman J. Manufacturing Desire: the commodification of female sexual dysfunction. Social Studies of Science 34 (2) 2004 pp. 187-218

Hicks K. Women's Sexual Problems - A Guide to Integrating the "New View" Approach October 7, 2004 retrieved September 16 here Inbaraj S. (2004) Thailand: The misuse of Viagra, fake drugs worry experts. IPS News Agency Bangkok August. Retrieved 14/08/2005 from www.ipsnews.net/africa/print.asp?idnews=25157

Irvine J. (1995) Regulated passions: the invention of inhibited sexual desire and sexual addiction Chapter 11 in Deviant Bodies: critical perspectives on difference in Science and popular culture Edited by Terry J. Urla J. Indiana University Press Bloomington

Meika Loe (2000) Female Sexual Dysfunction: for women or for sale? Network News 25 (1) Jan/Feb pp. 1-6

Selling Sickness - documentary on the medicalization of depression by the pharmaceutical industry- Retrieved 5 Oct 2004 from the programme Cutting Edge, channel CBS, Melbourne, Australia.

Tevlin H. Leiblum S. Sex-role stereotypes and female sexual dysfunction chapter 7 in Franks V. Rothblum E. (editors) The stereotyping of women: its effects on mental health Springer Publishing New York 1983

Tiefer L. -Definitions and prevalence of Low Desire, HSSD, Low Libido 2004 - Problems with P&Gs marketing plans 2004 - The Pink Viagra Story: we have the drug but whats the disease? 2003 Retrieved September 7 2005 from www.fsd-alert.org

Tiefer L. The medicalization of female sexuality: The 10/99 conference (in article The selling of female sexual dysfunction) Retrieved September 17, 2005 from http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/LEONORE.HTM#A11

W.H.O. Sexual health and Sexuality definitions October 2002 retrieved August 15 2005 here




Books on Vaginismus, sexual healing and various topics



APA American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) Washington DC.

Ashurst P., Hall Z. Understanding women in distress Tavistock/Routledge New York 1989

Ensler Eve The Vagina Monologues -The V-Day Edition- (1996)

Leiblum and Rosen Editors (1995) Case Studies in sex therapy The Guilford Press London -Selected Chapters:

-Kaplan H. Sexual Aversion Disorder: The Case of the Phobic Virgin, or an Abused Child Grows Up Helen Singer -Leiblum S. Relinquishing Virginity: The Treatment of a Complex Case of Vaginismus - Renshaw D. Sexless Marriages and Sex Therapy: The Many Factors in Sexual Avoidance

Mackenzie Jordan (1998) Beloveds in Bed, 201 secrets of soulful intimacy. - Diamond Heart Books, Arizona.

Maltz W. (2001) The sexual healing journey a guide for survivors of sexual abuse Quill Harper Collins Publishers New York

Stewart Elizabeth MD and Spencer P. (2002) The V Book: a doctor's guide to complete vulvovaginal health. - Bantam Books, New York

Ussher J. (19930 The construction of female sexual problems regulating sex, regulating woman in Psychological perspectives on sexual problems : new directions in theory and practice Ed. By Ussher J. And Baker C. Routledge London 1993

Valins L. (1992) (Out of Print but available through Amazon) - When a Woman's Body says 'No' to Sex: Understanding and Overcoming Vaginismus. Penguin Books USA

Walker Barbara (1983) The woman's encyclopedia of myths and secrets. Harper. San Francisco

Wolf Naomi (2001) Misconceptions. Truth, lies and the unexpected on the journey to motherhood. Doubleday Pub. New York

Zoldbrod Aline (1998) Sex Smart: how your childhood shaped your life and what to do about it. New Harbinger Publications Inc. USA.

Zussman, L. & Zussman, S. (1976). Clinical management of sexual disorders (J. K. Meyer, Ed.) Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company

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DISCLAIMER: This site is not designed to provide medical advice. All material is gathered from the experience of hundreds of women who experienced vaginismus but it is for information only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional or medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment. Please review the information contained on vaginismus-awareness-network.org carefully and confer with a health care professional specialized in vaginismus, as needed.